Friday, May 22, 2020

The Kings Speech Analytical Essay - 1110 Words

God Save The King’s Speech Academy award winning film, The King’s Speech, is a motivational movie where voice and courage become a matter of life and death. Prince Albert, later known as King George VI (Colin Firth), stammers excessively and uncontrollably through his inaugural speech closing the 1925 British Empire Exhibition due to a speech impediment. After finishing such a disappointing speech, Prince Albert decides to give up on himself and accept his fate as a stammering heir to the throne. However, his wife, Elizabeth (Helena Bonham Carter), enlists him to see an Aussie speech therapist that goes by the name of Lionel Logue (Geoffrey Rush) whose â€Å"Antipodean methods are known to be ‘unorthodox’ and ‘controversial,’† (â€Å"The King’s†¦show more content†¦Bertie, is seen as a soon-to-be agonizing heir to the throne because he lacks communication skills. The only thing stopping Prince Albert is himself. In the m ovie he states: â€Å"If Im King, wheres my power? Can I form a government? Can I levy a tax, declare a war? No! And yet I am the seat of all authority. Why? Because the nation believes that when I speak, I speak for them. But I cant speak†(â€Å"The King’s Speech (2010)†). Prince Albert was a troubled child who was repressed of using his left hand, possessed knock-knees, had an abusive nanny and a death of a brother at an early age. As time passed, Prince Albert never grew out of his comfort zone and continued to speak poorly. Because Prince Albert speaks of himself that way, we can assume that communication is essential in leading a nation and is a foundation for personal life, relationships, professional success and civic life. By saying that a nation believes when he speaks, one can generally expect a leader for any reason or cause to possess great speaking skills in order to be prosperous. The old phrase, â€Å"actions speak louder than words† had ne ver been so true such as in the case of Prince Albert. The Duke of York lacks nonverbal behavior greatly in the sense that he has no self esteem therefore, making him a statue when he speaks. â€Å"I have received from his Majesty the K-K-K-King†(â€Å"The King’s Speech (2010)†) were theShow MoreRelatedAge of Enlightenment and Course Materials Essay1475 Words   |  6 PagesCandide worksheet Name: Huy Dang Khac The purpose of this assignment is to help you develop the critical thinking skills necessary to write a basic, college-level analytical essay. You may type directly into this file and then upload when finished. Remember that you need to connect what you read in the book to what you are learning from other course materials to complete you answers. Step I: Basic, factual analysis of a reading 1. List three examples of events/methods from Voltaire’sRead MoreLetter from Birmingham Jail Rhetorical Analysis- Martin Luth Essay1384 Words   |  6 PagesGurpreet Singh 10-01-10 Mr. Baldwin E5X-02 Martin Luther King, Jr. Analytical Essay Violence, force, bribery. These are just the few of the many ways figures all throughout history have come to implement their ideas among others. Whether it be through force or logic, there needs to be some form for persuasion to pass of your claim. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., promoter of social justice, utilizedRead MoreAlchemist Essay1157 Words   |  5 PagesAlchemist Analytical Essay Mentor Figures in The Alchemist The Alchemist is a philosophical story by Paulo Coelho about a boy named Santiago who follows his dreams. He sets off on an arduous journey to the Egyptian pyramids and learns many valuable lessons as he attempts to uncover hidden treasure. With the aid of a number of inspiring individuals who provide valuable insight on their personal beliefs, Santiago seeks to fulfill his main obligation in life. If Santiago did not have the assistanceRead MoreEnlightment of Education in Pygmalion and Educating Rita9449 Words   |  38 Pagesuniverse. That’s why the importance of learning and propagating of this language| | |was paid attention by the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan I. A. Karimov. In his| | |speech in Samarkand on November 12, 2010 he pointed out the importance of learning and | | |teaching English and gave priority to the learning of it. It is not for nothing. Today | | Read MoreInstructive Text Types11631 Words   |  47 Pagessynthetic of a combination of both. Variants include the expository essay, definition, summary. In expository essays, the encoder presents an explanation of concepts, usually from a subjective point of view. Functional coherence is achieved through the first person singular or plural point of view, or non-personal third person point of view. Topical coherence depends on the particular field of knowledge where the object of the essay is included. Definitions are specific forms of analytic expositionsRead MoreTranslation of Newspapers. Problems of British-American Press Headlines Translation15808 Words   |  64 Pagesfrom â€Å"Daily Nation†, â€Å"London Evening Standard†, â€Å"International Herald Tribune†, â€Å"The Times† and â€Å"National geographic† magazine. The aim of Research defined the following tasks: 1. to state the peculiarity of newspaper sub styles (advertisement, analytical, publicist text). 2. to investigate differences of newspaper headlines translations. 3. to offer solutions of specific translation problems in the practical part. Novelty of Research: Although there have been many researches devotedRead MoreBook to Study English for Chemistry12934 Words   |  52 PagesORGANIC CHEMISTRY 10 Carbon Facts Comparison of Adjectives Organic Nomenclature Word Order 47 Unit 8 ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY Environmental Chemistry Green Chemistry Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry Hazard Symbols Relative Pronouns 54 Unit 9 ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY Titration Mathematical Operations Flame Tests Articles 61 Unit 10 EVERYDAY CHEMISTRY Everyday Chemistry Modal Verbs Abstract 69 Bibliography 76 4 INTRODUCTION The following material has been created during the two years of teachingRead MoreChina in Africa Essay20116 Words   |  81 PagesAEGIS, of which NAI is an active member, is presented through three contributions. Photo by Susanne Linderos News from the Nordic Africa Institute 3/2007  First, we bring you an interview with the AEGIS Chair, Professor Patrick Chabal of King’s College, London. Secondly we provide a summary of ongoing work relating to the evaluation of academic results in African studies in the European countries. Finally there is a report from this year’s European Conference on African Studies (ECAS 2)Read MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words   |  1617 Pages168 How Creative Are You ? 169 Innovative Attitude Scale 171 Creative Style Assessment 172 SKILL LEARNING 174 Problem Solving, Creativity, and Innovation 174 Steps in Analytical Problem Solving 174 Defining the Problem 174 Generating Alternatives 176 Evaluating Alternatives 176 Implementing the Solution 177 Limitations of the Analytical Problem-Solving Model 178 Impediments to Creative Problem Solving 178 Multiple Approaches to Creativity 179 Conceptual Blocks 183 Percy Spencer’s Magnetron 185 SpenceRead MoreRastafarian79520 Words   |  319 Pagesprimary data on the movement but to analyze and re-analyze the growing body of scholarly and popular literature on the movement, including sociological and anthropological studies, biographies, monographs, dissertations, published and unpublished essays, and periodical articles. Archival sources, such as newspaper reports, policy statements, pamphlets, and organization manuals have also provided useful information. Chapter 1 reviews and reï ¬ nes Webers theory of charisma and routinization, using

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Honor Killings Essay - 537 Words

Honor Killings For thousands of years women have been looked down upon in society and have not been treated as equals. It wasn’t very long ago that women in America weren’t allowed to have jobs or vote, men were always the leaders. Just tonight my father was saying how when he was growing up if you talked back to your father or husband you would be punished, and that was only about thirty or forty years ago. I believe that today’s American woman take their freedom for granted. In some cultures women still do not have the privilege of being considered an equal and have no rights. In countries where Islam is practiced they have honor killings, where â€Å"woman are murdered by their families each year in the name of family â€Å"honor.†Ã¢â‚¬ ¦show more content†¦These are all normal, ok things for us. However in places such as â€Å"Bangladesh, Great Britain, Brazil, Ecuador, Egypt, India, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Pakistan, Morocco, Sweden, Turkey, and Uganda,â₠¬  if you were a woman and you did any of these things you would be killed, and by your own family. The worst part is that it’s not only the men that support this, but also â€Å"the females in the family - mothers, mother-in-laws, sisters, and cousins†¦It’s a community mentality.† I think the women agree with honor killings because they are afraid of what will happen to them if they stand up for themselves or for any other woman. The fact is that they will be killed themselves if they do. One point in the article, which I found unacceptable, relates to chapter five in the text about marriage. â€Å"In India, more than 5,000 brides die annually because their dowries are considered insufficient, according to the United Nations Children’s Fund.† If this is going to happen either the United Nations Children’s Fund should remove this statement, or dowries should not be used in Indian marriages anymore. This may be considered ethnocentrism on my part but women are human beings and deserve the right to live life and not be afraid. In my opinion honor killings are wrong. I can’t understand how you could kill a woman in your family forShow MoreRelatedEssay on The Issue With Honor Killings1599 Words   |  7 Pagesthat the human race has to deal with and one of them is honor killings. This is an issue that has not been completely touched upon because it is not and an issue that everyone gets to see. The main idea is to understand what an honor killing is and what’s its status around the world but specifically to the country that is Pakistan. One main point that should be remembered is that it is all based off of tradition and not religion. A honor killing is a violent action towards a person that has broughtRead MoreThe Violence Of Hindu Honor Killings961 Words   |  4 PagesIn honor killings, most of the women are killed on the basis of an illicit relationship as specified by their partner or family. Sometimes the killings are carried out for ridiculously pathetic reasons such as failing to serve a meal on time can be seen as a stain on family honor and can lead to woman’s death. In modern time, where the world is revolving around technological advances and the independence of women and gender equality, honor killings have exceeded and are more rampant. While IndiaRead MoreHonor Killing Is The Murder Of A Member1986 Words   |  8 Pagesknown as Honor killing and that was the first time honor killing was started. It began with males who retained the right to kill an unmarried female when she had done something related to sexual activities. Honor killing is the murder of a member within the family by the oth er members. The males often kill the female member as they belief that the female has brought dishonor to the family and the community for many reasons such as engaging sexual activities without marriage. The killing shows theRead MoreHypocrisy Of So Called Honor Killings2004 Words   |  9 PagesSo-Called â€Å"Honor Killings† Every year, similar stories of a young girl or woman murdered by her own family occur. The plot is simple. A girl develops an innocent romantic relationship with a man of her age and soon, her family finds out about her relationship. Or, a girl’s parents have planned an arranged marriage for their daughter but she does not accept the suitor. In both cases, the family feels disrespected by the girl and so she has to be killed. This is also known as an â€Å"honor killing†. EveryRead MoreFailure in the Indian Judiciary System for Violence Against Women591 Words   |  3 Pagessystem to get justice for the victims. Why is violence against women so prolific in India? Although the womens organizations in India have opposed individual acts of violence against women ranging from female infanticide, rape, dowry deaths, honor killings, acid attacks to female infanticides, there has been little attention given to the theoretical understanding of the causes of this violence. Between 2001 and 2011 the number of incidents has increased tremendously. The disinclination of policemenRead MoreEssay on Blood Cleans Honor, or So We Are Told1193 Words   |  5 PagesThe number of honor killings each year is unknown. Figures are only estimates at the very best. The Iraq government dismisses the numbers that are published and those outside the country have no way to identify how many honor killings take place, if they are even recorded somewhere. According the Human Rights Watch, honor crimes are â€Å"acts of violence, usually murder, committed by male family members against female family members who are perceived to have brought dishonor upon the family† (Stop ViolenceRead MoreWomen s Rights And Empowerment1422 Words   |  6 PagesIn the Name of Honor She was a young girl with a powerful voice. Her story is one of bravery and defiance. With the help of her father, she became an important activist for the free education of women not only in Pakistan, but throughout the world. As many people encouraged her movement, she became nominated for several renowned peace prizes, and also became a target for the Taliban. One day on the way home from school she was cornered on a bus and shot in the head by a Taliban member. Yet her lifeRead MoreHonour Killings2634 Words   |  11 PagesHonour killing, india’s continuing shame Honour killing, india’s continuing shame SUBMITTED TO SUBMITTED BY Prof. seema dutta AMAN BANSAL ROLL NO-212017 OBJECTIVES Every research has an objective in mind when he or she starts his or her research on any topic and in the course of the research process the researcher’s job is to fulfillRead MoreDo Muslim Women Really Need Saving?1617 Words   |  7 Pagesknowledge and representation; and the dynamics of gender and the question of women’s rights in the Middle East (Columbia). Lughod in her book Do Muslim Women Really Need Saving? sets out to get rid of stereotypes that muslim women because of frequent ‘honor killings’ and the practice of veiling need to be rescued. She coins the term for the exploration of saving muslim women ‘Islamland.’ There is the perpetuating stereotype and dominant narrative that muslim women need saving and islam is a threatening cultureRead MoreHonour Killing : An Evil Of Society2216 Words   |  9 PagesHonour Killing: An Evil of Society with reference to Khap Panchayat Introduction Honour Killing’ is a cultural crime or a cultural tradition prevalent amongst non-Caucasian Societies which perceive women as bearers of family honour. Honour Killing of women can be defined as acts of murder in

Flag Desecration Amendment Free Essays

Central Texas College| Political Review One| Flag Desecration Amendment| Dr. Karen Waugh| Jamorion Stanford| 9/17/2012| Flag Desecration The American flag is one of the most recognizable symbols this country has today. As children, we learn in school to cross our heart with our right hand and recite the pledge of allegiance to the United States of America, while facing the flag, a beloved symbol. We will write a custom essay sample on Flag Desecration Amendment or any similar topic only for you Order Now As a soldier in the United States Army, I proudly wear a flag as a part of my Army Combat Uniform (ACU). It is worn by soldiers like me to show the love of country, honor and commitment to this great nation. It is cherished by veterans who have fought for this country, and families of the fallen soldiers cherish it because it is a symbol that their loved one lost their life for this country. With all the great things the American flag stands for in this country, where does the right to desecrate it stand? Is it indeed a form for a person or persons to express their right of freedom of speech by the First Amendment, or an outright disrespect of a national treasure that should be protected at all costs? If so, what are those costs? Flag desecration doesn’t come as an easy choice. One would think that this would be the case, but in reality the decision is just not a simple. The decision by Congress on whether to protect the flag from desecration is not that cut and dry. Many views must be taken into consideration when delving into this issue. On one side you have the supporters whose arguments include, that burning the flag dishonors American who fought and died for this country, the 49 states that have called for Congress to pass the Amendment, and the power taken form Congress to protect the flag by the Supreme Court in 1989, was wrong and needs correcting. The opponents arguments suggest that passing such an Amendment would alter our nation’s history for the first time, that there is not enough to justify making such a change to a big part of the First Amendment, and that flag burning is rare. The next thing to do is consider all the different point of views. When an image of the flag being desecrated is shown, many of us whether you served in the military or not, can’t help but feel disrespected. This holds true for supporters of the Flag Desecration Amendments. For Americans who fought and still fight for this country, an act of desecrating the flag is a slap in the face to the service they provide and the sacrifices they have made while serving. The flag is a national treasure not just a cloth with colors and stripes. It is symbol that stands for freedom and unites this country. Supports for the Flag Desecration Amendment strongly believe that such a national treasure should be upheld and backed by congress, so much so that 49 states have called to Congress asking that the Flag Desecration Amendment be passed. The Flag Desecration Amendment reads; Congress shall have the power to prohibit the physical desecration of the flag of the United States. (How a Member Decides to Vote) The power to protect the flag is believed by supporters to have been wrongfully taken from Congress by the Supreme Court in 1989. Passing the Flag Desecration Amendment would reverse that action, and protect the sacred symbol. This amendment is about restoring a freedom to the people. The people’s freedom to protect their flag, a freedom they enjoyed and exercised for 100 years. Flag Burning Debate and Poll) Supporter’s reasons of the proposed Amendment are convincing, like those of Brooke Brown, a nine year old, who wrote about the flag being a national treasure and that it should be protected, support even from a child are convincing, but there are always two sides to a story. Opponents of the Flag Desecration Amendment, propose reasons that make sense in not passing such an amendment and in doing so would lead to an ultimate betrayal of the freedoms granted to us by the First Amendment. In passing the Flag Desecration Amendment, it would mean that if a person wanted to express political freedom of speech by desecrating the flag they could not. A proposed Amendment would undermine the First Amendment. As Americans we are granted many freedoms and the freedom of speech is a major one, so if congress were to say that a person could not express themselves and to have it in writing then what else would change. Opponents also make a point that flag burning is rare. They say that is doesn’t happen every year, but when it has that it was to express political speech as the Supreme Court held in 1989. Opponents also say that once freedoms such as this be taken away then what’s to say what else congress will regulate and subject to violations. Anna Ross, form the â€Å"How a Member Decides to Vote† module mentions, that while it might make us mad to see our flag being desecrated, it is not good enough reason to weaken one of the most important principals of democracy. The module simulation was very informative; the how a member decides to vote module shows the steps that are taken by a person in congress on voting for such a change. The process is difficult, it takes a bit of personal beliefs and also being able to be objective and have the rights of the people in mind. One must be open-minded and not be subjected by a single side. The good of all should be considered when taking a vote on a matter such as the Flag Desecration Amendment. Considering the thoughts and feeling of those for the amendment such as what it means to Americans who serve for the symbol of the flag, the 49 states that have called for a change, and for those that think a decision needs to be corrected, while not forgetting that with a passage comes a history altering change, considering that a desecration action is not a common everyday occurrence, and that there is not enough to justify undermining the freedoms given to Americans through the First Amendment. No one likes to see the symbol of our nation, the one that unites us being hurt; it is not just a piece of fabric with colors on it, but a symbol that stands for freedom. The module shows how difficult a task this can be to undertake and personal beliefs and public interest can conflict, so it goes without saying, can we protect our symbol while upholding the First Amendment? I learned that initially I was for the Flag Desecration Amendment, it must be protected, but as I considered all the views presented surprisingly, I found that I voted NAY. I thought, although I proudly wear a flag on my ACUs, the flag was not the freedom itself but a symbol. The first amendment grants freedoms and to vote for the Flag Desecration Amendment, would take a specific freedom away. Although I fight for this country, this country is not the flag itself, it is a symbol, but what it stands for is the many freedoms granted in which I believe are the bigger picture. The combination of these points as a whole need to be considered by congressmen and women when casting a vote on this difficult subject, one must take into account all points and try not let his or her own views be the only means on which to vote. Works Cited Flag Burning Debate, Political Debates and Polls Forum, September 17, 2012, http://www. youdebate. com/DEBATES/FLAG_BURNING. HTM The Center on Congress at Indiana University and work the â€Å"How a Member Votes† module, September 17, 2012, http://congress. indiana. edu/interactive-learning-modules, Central Texas College Blackboard How to cite Flag Desecration Amendment, Essay examples

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Technological Effects an Example by

Technological Effects With the continuous research being done on almost all fields of life, change has become inevitable. It has become a constant occurrence that either causes improvement or failure of certain things or matters that are discovered and utilized. For instance, researches have led to the constant improvement in the ways of storing and transporting products and other goods. In addition, researches have also led to the discovery of new sources of energy. From the very first storage ware and set of wheels to todays lightning fast delivery of products the most efficient way possible, the world has taken a great leap in the field of storage and transportation. And with the constant discovery of new things, it may well be expected that some ten years later, advancements in the field of energy storage may become the most influential and efficient in the international arena. Need essay sample on "Technological Effects" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed The fast-paced and very active lifestyle of todays generation calls for innovative gadgets that can support the multitasking capability that people have developed in order to cope with abrupt changes. From phones being used as a communication tool, now it also serves as a means to preserve memories through built-in cameras installed in the latest phones available. The computers that were once used to do basic math problems are now utilized as tools for communication as well. With the advent of new technology and innovations, the problem of bulk was slowly solved. From a tool with multiple parts needed to function, computers have now evolved into gadgets that may be placed comfortably atop ones lap and in a bag. From the size of a deadly weapon, phones have now shrunk to the size of ones palm. Portable and multipurpose, these little things are todays mans best friend. However, like the dogs of before, these things also have limitations. It runs out of power after a number of uses. Due to the portability feature, these gadgets are limited to the amount of energy stored in the minimized energy storage technology that comes with it. This is why continuous research is being done in order to develop a more advanced energy storage technology (Advanced Energy Storage Technologies, 2004). As soon as the advanced energy technology is improved in a way that storage of energy is in the minutest possible form, that new innovation on laptop computers may be ensued, greatly affecting the international relations in the next ten years. In the field of international relations, communication is a very important factor. And as such, any innovation that would render new energy saving techniques will affect the process wherein communication is carried out. This is due to the fact that international communication is made easier through the use of various gadgets that are dependent on stored energy. An advanced energy storage technology entails a power quality that is highly reliable. This kind of technology has the capacity to prevent disturbances or interruptions. It can challenge todays monopoly of lead-acid batteries being used in transportation, remote telecommunication sites, and large-scale utility support (Advanced Energy Storage Technologies, 2004). Lithium Polymer battery, an example of todays advanced energy storage technology is being used as replacement for lead-acid batteries. The size of these batteries is a third of its opponent in the market. Its weight is only a fifth of that of lead-acid. Many people and companies utilizing stored energy are switching to this alternative because of these properties. Within ten years, it is likely that the size of it may get smaller and the weight may become as that of a feather. As such it is also possible that gadgets may become even more convenient, portable and travel-lighter (Advanced Energy Storage Technologies, 2004). With the discovery of the small advanced energy storage technology, international and personal affairs have been bridged and made easier to conduct. As such, it is possible that within the next ten years, the field of international relations and communications will be made easier and stronger. This is why advanced energy storage technology may be considered as the one with the greatest effect on international relations in the next ten years. Since communication is a very important field in the international relations and gadgets are used to facilitate communication, successful invention of advanced energy storage technology may become considerably influential in the international arena in the next ten years. Reference Advanced Energy Storage Technologies. (2004). Research Overview. Advanced Energy Storage Technologies (Technical Insights). Retrieved March 9, 2009, from http://www.frost.com/sublib/display-report.do?id=D289-01-00-00-00#report-benefits

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Sri Aurobindo

Sri Aurobindo Free Online Research Papers Hindi biro ang dinaanan ng sangkatuhan bago makaabot sa kasalukuyang kalagayan. Dumaan tayo sa sarisaring pagsubok ng kalikasan para patunayan na tayo ang pinakadakilang nilikha sa sandaigdigan. Sa pagtatapos ng Ice Age (mga 2-3 milyong taon na ang nakalilipas), nagwakas ang buhay ng maraming dambuhalang hayop sa kasaysayan ng lupa na sya namang nagluwal sa pamamayani ng tao (Tarbuck at Lutgens, 2003: 143). Ang tao ang nanatiling matatag. Ang tao ang karapat-dapat maghari sa lahat ng nilalang. Sa pamamagitan ng kakayahan ng hayop o tao na makiayon sa mga pagbabago ng kanyang kapaligiran upang mabuhay at ang mahina o hindi makasabay ay namamatay, pinalad ang tao na magpatuloy mamuhay. Higit itong kilala sa tawag na natural selection. Ito ay ang palaging pwersang pumipilit na pabutihin ang kaantasan ng mga uri ng specie sa isang matatag na kapaligiran, upang bigyan lalo ng kalamangan ang specie (Bawler 2003: 170-172). Narito ngayon ang Bagong Tao o Modern Man mula sa mahabang ebolusyon ng Australopithecines, Pithecanthrophines at Neantherdals. 35,000 taon nang namamayani ang Makabagong tao (Brace, 1995). Ang wika ay nananahan sa kaliwang bahagi ng ating utak. Kasama ng wika ay ang pagiging analitikal, mula-sa-malaki-tungo-sa-maliit, pagkakasunod-sunod, pagiging makatwiran, tutok sa oras at pagpapaliban sa ginagawa (Hampden-Turner 1981, 86-89). Ngunit ang utak na ito ay dumaan sa mahabang proseso bago maging ganap na kaagapay ng tao sa pag-iral at pananatiling dominanteng nilalang sa ibabaw ng lupa. Pinaniniwalaan na may bahagi ng utak ng taong nananatiling primitibo. Ito ay ang reptilian at paleomammalian (limbic) brain. Pinaniniwalaang sa reptillian brain naka-program ang instinct ng pagiging tao samantalang sa paleomammalian brain naman nakahimlay ang sarap at hirap na karanasan. Ang mga ito ang naging hanguan-impukan ng buhay at karanasan ng ebolusyon ng tao. Mula sa paghahanap ng pagkain, pang-aakit at iba pang primitibong karanasan ay sinasabing dito nakasalig. Ngunit ang mga utak na ito ay hindi pa sapat ang kakayahan upang isatinig sa isip ang kanilang naiisip o nararamdaman. Hanggang sa tuluyang malinang ang neocortex (neomammalian) brain (ibid, 80-83). Dito na nagtagni ang karanasan at iniisip ng tao. Dito na nagsimulang lapatan ng tao ng pangalan ang mga karanasang pinagdaraanan (tignan ang larawan). Ang Ebolusyon ng Utak ng Tao Ang ebolusyon ng utak ng tao batay sa aklat na Maps of the Mind (Charts and Concepts of the Mind and Its Labyrinths) ni Charles Hampden-Turner p. 81 Bagamat pinaniniwalaan na nasa kaliwang bahagi ng utak ng tao ang wika, hindi maikakaila na sangkot pa rin ang buong utak sa pagproseso ng impormasyon, mula sa pagdama at pagpapadala ng mensahe sa utak, proseso ng impormasyon at pagbubo ng konsepto dito (Pavek 1988, 113-114). Ang Paghahati sa Utak ng Tao Ang pinapalagay na paghahati sa utak ng tao at ang gampanin ng bawat panig batay sa aklat na Maps of the Mind (Charts and Concepts of the Mind and Its Labyrinths) ni Charles Hampden-Turner p. 87 Maaring sa simula, ang apoy ay isang mapang-akit na liwanag sa mga sinaunang tao. At sa kanilang paglapit ay may kakaiba silang naramdaman hatid ng pagbabago ng temperatura. At para sa reptillian brain: apoy=liwanag=init. Samantalang sa paleommalian brain ay: apoy=liwanag=init=ginhawa/hirap dulot ng apoy. At nang malinang nang husto ang neommalian brain ay apoy=liwanag=init=ginhawa/hirap dulot ng apoy=manipulasyon o kontrol ng apoy. Kung ganoon, ang apoy ay hindi lamang isang penomena ng kalikasan ngunit naging bahagi ng pang-araw-araw na karanasan ng tao. At ang salitang ‘apoy’ ay hindi lamang sagisag ng sumasagisag at sinasagisag (signified at signifier) ngunit bumabalot sa apoy ang isanlibo’t isang konsepto hatid ng indibidwal, etniko at pambansang karanasan. Gaya ng mga sumusunod na salita at parirala na kaugnay ng apoy (bilang penomena ng pagliliyab ng mga kemikal o elemento na makikita sa liwanag, dingas at init): Dinilaan ng apoy- nasimulang magliyab Naglaro ng apoy- pakikiapid o pangangalunya Apoy ng impyerno- kaparusahan Apoy sa dibdib- galit Inaapoy ng lagnat- mataas na lagnat Pinanday sa apoy- humusay Inaapuyan-sulsol Maging ang kasabihang â€Å"Ang kahoy na babad man sa tubig, pag nadarang sa apoy, pilit magririkit.† Na nangangahulugang ang taong kahit anong bait o timpi ay nahuhulog din kapag sa tukso naipit. Napakahalaga ng papel ng wika upang maglarawan ito ng naging karanasan ng tao sa kanyang pagiging nilalang. Ipinakikita lamang nito ang drama ng kanyang pakikihamok sa iba’t ibang pwersang bayolohikal, pisikal at etikal. Kung susumahin, ang kasaysayan ng pag-unlad ng tao ay hindi maiaalis sa pagbakas sa pag-unlad ng kanyang utak at wika. †¦ (ang wika) ay tanging bahagi ng kabuuang bayolohikal ng ating utak. Masalimuot at espesyalisadong kasanayan ang wika na nalilinang nang ganoon†¦ dahil dito, ilang cognitive psychologist ang naglarawan sa wika bilang isang sikolohikal na sangkap, isang mental na organ, isang sistemang neural, at isang kagamitan sa pagsusuma (Pinker 1994: 18). Patunay lamang na ginagamit ng tao ang wika sa pagtuos nya sa mga penomena na nangyayari sa kanyang paligid. Patunay rin na kinatawan ng wika ang karanasan ng utak at katawan ng sangkatauhan. Karanasan at Wika: Indibidwal, Etniko at Pambansang Paglalarawan Tinalakay ni John Searle, 1995 (Kay Gripaldo, 2000) ang dalawang uri ng karanasan: ang unang panauhan at ang ikatlong panauhan. Sa una, ang karanasang ontolohikal, ang kasangkot ay sumailalim o sumasailalim. Sya ang tagaganap o biktima ng karanasan. Sa ikatlong panauhang karanasang ontolohikal, pinapalitan ng indibidwal ang pananaw ng nagmamasid. Sa una, mapapansin ang laging gamit ng ‘ako’/‘ko’ (indibidwal) o ‘tayo’/‘natin’ (pampangkatan) ng nagmamasid sa paglalahad ng karanasan. Ito ay tinatawag na karanasang penomenolohikal. Sa ikatlo, ang ‘sya/nya’ o ‘sila’/‘nila’ ay madalas na gamitin. Ito ang tinatawag na karanasang empirikal. Mas mabigat ang ‘ako’/’ko’ kesa sa ‘tayo’/’natin’ dahil posibleng hindi nararanasan ng lahat ang nararanasan ng naglalahad. Gayundin ang ikatlong ontolohikal na karanasan ay higit na kapani-paniwala kesa sa pampangkatang unang panauhang ontolohikal na karanasan. At ang ikatlong karanasan ay ang ikalawang panauhang karanasan. Madalas marinig dito ang ‘ikaw’ at ‘mo.’ Ang mga uri ng ontolohikal na karanasang ito ay nag-uugnay-ugnay, nagkakawing-kawing at nagsasalimbayang penomena upang maglantad ng karanasan ng indibidwal, ng isang pangkat-etniko tungo sa pambansang karanasan. Ang pahayag ng isang indibidwal na â€Å"Masakit ang tyan ko!† na bagamat eksklusibo lamang sa nagsasalita ang karanasan, hindi maaring hindi magawang makaugnay ng sinumang nakaririnig dahil marahil isa itong unibersal na karanasan. Gayundin ang â€Å"Tag-ulan na, kawawa na naman ang Pampanga sa lahar!† na bagamat sa Gitnang Luzon lamang ito nagaganap, nagagawa pa rin ng mga tagapagsalita na makaugnay dahil na sa naging bahagi na ng bokabularyong Filipino ang salitang ‘lahar’. Idagdag pa ang pagbaha ng mga larawan, balita at kontrobersiya na bumalot sa nasabing kalamidad. Ang pahayag na †Nawiwili sya sa telenobela† na bagamat isang empirikal ay masasabing mahirap na itakwil na reyalidad na pambansang karanasan. Walang pribadong wika o ang wika ay publiko (Wittgenstein, 1921) at walang karanasang eksklusibo lamang sa indibidwal. Kung kayat ang bawat karanasan ay nagtutulak sa tao na humanap ng salitang ipanlalapat dito. Kasing kahulugan ito na ang salitang ipinanlalapat ng tao sa isang penomena o karanasan ay nagaganap o nararanasan ng lahat na nabibilang sa isang pangkat o bansa. Posibleng ibuod ngayon na ang karanasan ng isa ay hindi pwedeng hindi kabahagi ng kamalayan ng isang grupo ng tao o bansa. Tama lamang pala si Chomsky nang sabihin nya na ang wika ay karanasan lamang. Ngunit ang bawat salita ay hindi lamang salita. Ang wika ay bunsod ng mahabang ebolusyong pakikipagsapalaran ng tao. Ang pagkakabuo ng salita ay bunga ng simbolikong konsepto ay kailangang lagyan ng simbolikong tinig (Saussure 1959). Sa pagkakalapat ng tao ng salita sa konsepto, nasasaisip nya ang pilosopikal na katangian, tungkulin at naging tuwirang karanasan nya dito. Kaya sa tuwing gagamitin nya ang salitang ito upang kumatawan sa mental na representasyon ginagamit nya ang karanasan ng isang organisadong grupo ng tao na namumuhay tulad nya na may ganoon ding karanasan. May kakayahahan ang taong kumalap ng karunungan at gamitin ito sa bawat pakikipag-ugnayang panlipunan (Joseph 2004: 3). Sa ganitong konteksto, mahihiwatigan natin na napakahalaga ng wika upang pagbuklurin ang mga mamamayan at napagbubuklod ng wika ang mga mamamayan dahil ang wikang kanilang ginagamit ay kumakatawan sa kanilang magkakatulad na paraan ng pamumuhay, paniniwala, gawain o hanapbuhay, saloobin mas angkop sabihin na karanasan. Nakikilala ng indibidwal ang kanyang sarili sa pamamagitan ng kanyang pakikipag-ugnayan at pakikipamuhay sa iisang pamayanan. Nalalaman nya ang kaibahan at pagkakatulad nya sa kanyang mga kasama. Alam nya na sya’y matanda na kung bata ang kanyang nakakausap, alam nya kung babae sya kapag nakakausap sya ng lalake, alam nyang mangingisda sya kung nakakausap nya ang kapwa mangingisda, alam nyang kabilang sya sa isang grupo ng mga tao kung nakakausap nya ang iba pang grupo ng mga tao. Ito rin ang paniniwala sa aklat na †The Language Instinct ( How The Mind Creates Language):† Ang komon na wika ay nag-uugnay sa mga kasapi ng isang pamayanan sa isang ugnayang pagbabahaginan ng impormasyon na may nakamamanghang kolektibong kapangyarihan. Sinuman ay maaring makinabang mula sa kanilang henyo, swerteng aksidente, at karunungan sa pagsubok-pagkabigo na naipon ng sinuman, kasalukyan o lumipas. At ang mga mamamayan ay maaring gumawa ng pangkatan, ang kanilang pagsusumikap ay pinag-uugnay ng kanilang napagkasunduan (Pinker 1994: 16). Sa pakikipag-usap ng tao sa kanyang kapwa, wika ang nagiging daluyan ng mensahe. Ngunit hindi sapat ang kaalaman lamang sa balarila o istruktura ng wikang sangkot sa komunikasyon upang lubusang makuha ang mensahe. May mga kaisipan na hindi naririnig o nababasa ngunit nakasulat na sa isip ng mga nagsasalita o nakikinig dahil naiintidihan nila ang meta-mensahe. Bunga ito ng lubusang pagkaunawa ng nakikinig at nagsasalita sa likaw ng wika at komon na karanasang nagbubuklod sa nag-uusap. Halimbawa ay ang dalawang nag-uusap sa cellularphone: A: Nasaan ka na? Kanina pa ko dito. B: Nandyan na ako. A: Gaano pa katagal? B: Basta, dyan ka lang. Kung gramatika lang ang pagbabatayan, sinumang mag-aaral ng wika ay magsasabi na wasto ang serye ng usapan. Ngunit walang lohika. Hinahanap ni A si B. Pero sa sagot ni B kung nasaan na ito, makakakapa natin na imposibleng mangyari ang sinasabi ni B sa tanong ni A. Dahil kung nandoon na si B, sana ay hindi na maghahanap si A o magpapahintay pa si B kay A. Pero dahil sa gagap nina A at B ang likaw ng wika, nagkakaunawaan na ang dalawa. Na paparating na si B at maghintay dapat si A. Nilalarawan ng wika ang lipunan (mas dapat sigurong sabihing inaalingawngaw). Ang punto ay hindi lamang sa ipanakikita ng diin, talasalitaan at pangkalahatang istilo ng pagsasalita ng isang indibidwal, ngunit maging sa katayuan nito sa lipunan. Ang mga linggwistikong anyo, ang kanilang baryasyon at pagbabago ay nagsasabi rin sa atin tungkol sa kalidad ng kanilang kaugnayang panlipunan sa isang tiyak na kultura o kumpol ng mga kultura (Burke at Porter, eds: 1987, 11). Sa halimbawang usapan sa itaas, lubos na magkakilala sina A at B dahil hindi maglalakas loob si B kay A na paghintayin ito at papaniwalain ni B si A na sya’y malapit na sa lugar ng kanilang tagpuan. Gusto rin naman paalalahanan ni A si B na matagal na itong naghihintay. Kung ganoon, naiintindan ng isa’t isa ang mga pre-eksistidong kundisyon at relasyon kung kayat nagagawa nilang bitawan ang mga gayong pananalita. Nagtiwala ang isa’t isa na makukuha ang mensahe kahit sa ganoong uri ng usapan. Upang makarating ang impormasyon sa isip ng isang tagapakinig sa makatwirang sandali, maaari lamang maitipa ng tagapagsalita ang kapiraso ng mensahe sa mga salita at dapat umasa sa tagapakinig na punan ang iba pa (Pinker 1994: 81). Ito ang mentalese na tinutukoy ni Pinker sa aklat nyang †The Language Instinct (How The Mind Creates Language) :† Ang mentaleses ay ang haypotetkal na †wika ng pag-iisip† o representasyon ng mga konsepto at mga proposisyon sa utak na kung saan nakahimlay ang mga ideya, kabilang ang mga kahulugan ng mga salita at pangungusap. Binabanggit nya na kumpara sa anumang wika, mas mayaman at mas simple sa ibang paraan ang mentalese. At ang pagkatuto ng wika, kung ganoon, ay ang pag-alam kung paano isasalin ang mentalese sa hibla ng mga salita at ang kabaligtaran nito. Wikang Filipino: Wika ng Karanasan ng Bansa Ipinaliwanag ni Constantino (kina Peregrino et al, eds. 2002: 49-52) na ang pagkakaroon ng bokabularyong kumon, maging pagkakahawig kung hindi man magkakapareho sa mga wika sa Pilipinas ay magpapatunay na dumaan ang wikang Filipino sa isang mahabang proseso upang ganap na kumatawan sa karanasan nating lahat. Ang Filipino, bilang Pambasang Lingua Franca ay isang manipestasyon na kinakatawan nito ang mga wika sa Pilipinas. Mahigpit na kabuhol ng buhay ang wika sa karanasan ng tao na parang napakahirap isiping mangyari ang buhay na wala nito (Pinker 1994: 17). Kung kayat masasabing ang laman ng isip na isinawika ng bawat Filipino ay nagbabadya ito ng manipestasyon ng karanasan ng isang indibidwal na tatagos sa kamalayan at karanasan ng bansa. Ang salitang iyon ay hindi lamang kanya, kundi ay wika ng bayan. Ang karanasan nyang iyon ay hindi rin lang kanya, kundi, karanasan ng sambayanan. Ang bawat kaisipang Pilipino, kulturang Pilipino at lipunang Pilipino ay bunga ng karanasang Pilipino. Ang salitang F/Pilipino ay tampok na pang-uri sa mga larangang kaisipan, kultura at lipunan. Mahalaga ang salitang Pilipino bilang pang-uri sa ating bansa at pagiging lahi (Covar kay Salazar 2004: 37). Identidad at Wika: Indibidwal, Etniko at Pambansang Kalakasan Upang mapadali sa tao ang mabuhay laban sa iba’t ibang pwersang pangkapligiran, minabuti nyang makisama sa kanyang mga kauri. Magbuklod-buklod ang may magkakatulad na hilig, nais at paraan ng pamumuhay. Nalinang ang isang komon na wika na nagbubuklod sa kanila. Ngunit sa kabila ng kanyang pakikipamuhay sa piling ng karamihan na halos katulad nya sa maraming aspekto, may nanatili sa indibidwal na tanging sya at sya lang ang nagmamay-ari: ang kanyang identidad. Ang indibidwal ay nagtataglay ng nilikha nyang reyalidad upang gamiting panukat sa sarili at sa labas ng kanyang reyalidad. Ito ang ginagamit nya upang maabot at umabot sa reyalidad at karanasan ng iba. Sa ganitong konteksto, ang indibidwal ay lumilikha ng kanyang identidad na sya nyang batayan sa pagmamalas sa sarili at sa iba. Tatlong uri ng identidad (Joseph 2004: 6). 1. isa para sa tunay na tao at isa para sa likhang tauhan 2. isa para sa sarili at para sa iba 3. isa para sa mga indibidwal at isa para sa mga grupo Nakikilala ng indibidwal ang kanyang sarili sa pamamagitan ng pagkilala ng iba. Nalalaman ng isang tao ang kaibahan nya kung may nakikita syang iba. Nababakas ng tao ang papel nya sa isang pangkat, grupo o etnolinggwistikong grupo kung nakikihalubilo o umiiwas sya dito. Kung kaya sa bawat pagkakataon, ang isang indibidwal ay may nakahandang identidad depende sa pagkakataon at lokasyon. Gaya ng tinutukoy ni Joseph na tatlong uri ng identidad, ang Filipino bilang mamayan ng bansa, kabilang sa etnolinggwistikong pangkat at indibidwal ay nagtataglay ng mga identidad. Tinalakay ni Constantino (kina Peregrino et al, eds. 2002: 57) na ang mismong interaksyong nagaganap sa hanay ng mga nagsasalita (bagamat posibleng may baryasyon) ay isang anyo ng pagpapakilala sa kanyang katayuan sa lipunan na maaring indikasyon ng pakikiisa, pakikilahok, pakikipalagayang-loob, pakikisama o pananaig/pagiging iba nito. Patunay na ang wika ng isang indibidwal ay wika ng kanyang identidad. Gayundin maituturing ang pagsasalita ng isang pangkat-etniko sa kanyang katutubong wika, ipinakikilala lamang ng grupong ito kung sino sila sa lipunan o identidad bilang pangkat-etniko. At gayundin naman tayong mga Filipino sa pagsasalita ng Filipino o ng mga katutubong wika sa Pilipinas, isang repleksyon ng ating identidad bilang isang bansa. Sa pangungusap na, †Ako si Juan, Bulakenyo, isang Filipino† ay nagpapakilala sa tatlong paraan: 1. Ang kanyang sarili bilang isang indibidwal, lumikha sya ng isang tunay na tao na umiiral na may identidad at ito ang nilikha nya upang makilala ng ibang tao. Kung ganoon, ang isang indibidwal ay malay na sa kanyang sarili kung paano sya gustong malasin ng kanyang sarili gayundin ng ibang tao. Sya bilang ’Juan’ ay produkto ng paglikha nya ng identidad. Sya ang lumikha ng idetidad na ’Juan.’ 2. Ang kanyang pagkakakilala sa sarili at ang pagkakakilala sa kanya ng iba, ay ang pangmalas ng indibidwal sa kanyang sarili kung paano nya gustong makilala at ipakilala. Sa puntong ito, malay ang indibidwal sa kanyang identidad na pagkakasipat mula sa labas ng kanyang uniberso. Ito ang pagkakakilala nya kay ’Juan’ na kabilang sa isang etnolinggwistikong grupo o mamamayan ng isang bansa. 3. Para sa ibang tao o grupo ng mga tao na posibleng hindi nakakakilala sa kanya ay lumilikha rin ng identidad si Juan na isang Bulakenyo, na isang Filipino. Walang pagtutol na ang bawat isa sa atin ay lumilikha ng kani-kanyang identidad o pagkakakilanlan. At ang identidad ay lubusan pang naipakikilala sa pamamagitan ng wika. Kung ang bawat etnolinggwistikong pangkat ay may kani-kanyang paraan ng pagsasalita kung paano ipinakikilala ang sarili, o grupong kinabibilangan, kasingkahulugan ito na ang bawat pangkat etniko ay lumilikha ng natatanging identidad kung paano sya gustong malasin o makilala ng iba pang pangkat o indibidwal. Ito ang pagkukuwento natin ng kasaysayan ng ating lahi. Na tayo’y binubuo ng mga pangkat etiniko na may natatanging kani-kanyang wika at identidad ngunit bumubuo pa rin sa iisang bansa. Ang unang palagay, na ang ating pagkakakilanlan/identidad, panggrupo man o pang-indibidwal ay hindi ‘likas na katotohanan’ tungkol sa atin, ngunit mga bagay na ating nililikha- likha o kwento kung tutuusin (Jospeh 2004: 6). Kayat natural na kahit saang sulok man ng daigdig, na nagtitipon-tipon ang mga Filipino sa iisang komunidad at nagtatag ng samahan tulad ng †Filipino Community† ay totooong totoo pa rin ang penomena ng pagsasama-sama ng mga etnolinggwistikong pangkat tulad ng Filipino Waray Associations in Honolulu, Cabalens of Italy, El Caviteno of Germany at iba pa. Hindi dapat ito ituring na kahinaan, bagkus ay kalakasan pa dahil ipinakikita lamang nito ang likas na pagkauhaw ng mga Filipino sa pinagmulang ugat at pagpapakita at pagmamalaki ng identidad. Ang wika ay nakagagawang magpalaki ng grupo nang hindi nasasayang ang oras para maghanap ng pagkain o ang pagbubuklod-panlipunan ng mga tao na kinakailangang upang tapatan ang anumang uri ng kahirapan. Dahil maaring masabi ang mensahe sa iba’t ibang tao nang minsanan na lang, mapapablis natin ang galaw para maayos ang iba†¦ sa kabilang banda, ang wika ay napapakinabangn ng indibidwal upang makahanap ng kakampi o kasama (ibid: 27) . Mabisang pantuhog ang Wikang Filipino upang bigkisin ang identidad ng mga mamamayan sa loob man at sa labas ng bansa dahil kung nagkakasama ang mga Filipino sa iisang lugar sa kabila na sila’y nabibilang sa iba’t ibang etnolinggwistikong pangkat, sinasalita na nila ang lingua franca na magbubuhol at mag-uugnay sa lahat. Ang Wikang Filipino. At dahil dito, nananatiling buhay, masigla at matatag ang identidad ng mga Filipino sa loob at labas man ng bansa dahil sa mayamang kultura na syang kabuhol ng wika. Tinalakay ni Zeus Salazar (2004: 65-70) ang kahalagahan ng matatag at buhay na kultura’t wika ng bawat etnolinggwistikong grupo sa Pilipinas dahil isa itong mabuting tanggulan ng pananaig ng isang maghaharing grupo. Sa Pilpinas ay walang masasabing sentro ng kultura sapagkat ang sentro ng kultura ay nagbuhat sa mga pamayanang kultural na syang batis ng pambansang kultura. Ang pambansang kultura ay binubuo, sa kasalukuyan, ng iba’t ibang daloy at batis mula sa iba’t ibang pamayanan, kasama na rin dito ang mga elementong kultural na buhat sa kanyagang pamayanan (ibid 43). Karanasan at Identidad: Sagwan at Lunday sa Maalong Panahon Hindi nakapagtataka na magawang lampasan ng mga Filipino ang iba’t ibang krisis ng ating panahon. Survivor daw ang mga Filipino. Mas angkop sigurong sabihing survivalist. Mababakas ito sa ating kasabihan. 1. Papunta ka pa lang, pauwi na ako. pagpapaalala ng mga matatanda sa kanilang dinaan na kasalukuyan nating nararanasan 2. Marami ka pang bigas na kakainin.- marami pa tayong dapat maranasan 3. May gatas ka pa sa labi.- hindi pa husto ang wisyo o bata pa 4. Kalabaw lang ang tumatanda.- hindi pagsuko ng matatanda o di pagpapagapi sa katandaan 5. May asim pa.- pagpapakita ng positibong saloobin na pwede pang mapansin 6. Kung saan ka nadapa, doon ka bumangon- indikasyon na harapin ang pinagmulan ng problema at mula sa kinasadlakan, doon ay muling magsimula 7. Kung nakakakain ang pito, makakain ang walo- pagkakamada ng mapagkukunang yaman upang makatulong sa iba sa pamamagitan ng pagpaparaya 8. Pag maliit ang kumot, matutong mamaluktot- pinagkakasya, pinagtityagaan kung ano lang ang meron Ilan pang indikasyon ng desperadong hangarin ng mga Filipinong mabuhay at manatiling lumalaban ay ang tulad ng: higpit ng sinturon, kapit sa patalim, kayod-marino, trabahong kalabaw, pasang-krus at marami pang iba. Makikita sa mga halimbawa kung anong uri ng mga mamamayan ang mga Filipino, matiisin, mapagpasensya, matulungin at iba pang mga katangian na minsan ay tila nanghihikayat sa pang-aabuso, pang-aapi o panlulupig. Ngunit, batay sa ating karanasan, mahaba ang pasensya ng mga Filipino ngunit natututo tayo sa karanasan. Lumalaban kung kinakailangan at magtanda. Gaya ng mga kasabihang, †lintek lang ang walang ganti, may araw ka rin, maghahalo ang balat sa tinalupan, magtago ka na sa pinanggalingan mo, gyera patani, isama mo pa ang lelong mong panot†. At dahil sa impluwensya ng mass madia, naging bahagi na rin ng kasabihang Filipino ang †hindi ka na sisikatan ng araw, isang bala ka lang, bukas tatakpan ka ng dyaryo.† Ang mga halimbawa sa itaas ay patunay na buo ang identidad ng mga Filipino bilang isang bansang kapwa mahinahon sa pagkagalit, matiisin ngunit masamang sinasagad sa galit. Ito marahil ang namamayaning ideolohiya ng mga Filipino. Kung kayat ang paglaya sa mga Kastila at Amerikano ay hindi madali ngunit naging makulay ang pagkakahiwalay, na dalawampung taon ng diktadurya at batas militar ang kinakailangan upang pumalag ang mga Filipino, at panggigigil ng mga Filipino nang hindi payagan ng labing-isang senador na hindi buksan ang sobre na may kinalaman sa Jose Villarde account bago pa tuluyang lumabas ng bahay at pumunta sa lansangan upang ipahayag ang pagkadismaya. Kayat tama si Fairclough (2001) nang sabihin nya na ang wika ay syang tagapagdala at nagsasalehitimo ng ideolohiya. Masasalamin sa Wikang Filipino ang identidad at karanasang dinaan ng ating kasaysayan. †¦ iginigiit ng maraming eksperto sa kasaysayan, sosyolohiya at politika na ang pag-iral ng pambansang wika ay ang pangunahing batayan na kung saan ang pambansang ideolohiya ay binuo†¦ may iba naman na mas binigyang-diin na ang pambansang wika ay hindi talaga likas, ngunit nilikha ng mga mamamayan bilang bahagi ng tungkuling ideolohikal sa pagbubuo ng bansa (Joseph 2004: 94). Ang Karanasan at Identidad ng mga Filipino sa pagiging Multi-lingual Isa sa nilutas ng wikang Filipino ay ang pagiging eksklusibo ng wikang pambansa sa mga Tagalog. Pinatunayan na ng maraming literatura, pag-aaral at pananaliksik na malaking bulto ng mga salita sa Pilipinas ay halos magkakatunog, magkakahawig sa anyo at may iisang kahulugan. Gayundin, kung maluwag ang pagtanggap ng Filipino sa mga hiram na salita, ano pa kaya sa mga katutubong wika sa Pilipinas? Sa katunayan, maaari pa ngang magamit ang mga katutubong salita sa Pilipinas bilang hanguan ng panapat o salin sa mga salita o konsepto na wala sa Tagalog. Nandyan ang gahum, tarong, lawas, danum at iba pa. Dahil mababang lugar o patag ang Rehiyong Tagalog, hindi nakakaranas ito ng ‘fog’ kung kayat walang salitang panumbas ang mga Tagalog sa fog. Hindi kasi ito bahagi ng karanasan ng mga Tagalog. Ngunit meron nito ang ibang etnolinggwistikong grupo na nakararanas ng nasabing penomenong fog. May ‘lina-a’w ang mga Ilokano. Pero kahit walang ‘fog’ sa Tagalog at may ‘lina-aw’ sa mga Ilokano, nagiging karanasan pa rin ng buong bansa ang karanasan ng mga Ilokano. Tumatagos sa buong bansa ang pakbet, buro, kanin, danggit, inasal, tapuy, amok at lambanog. Tumatagos ang kultura, identidad at karanasan ng bawat etnolinggwistikong grupo sa buong bansa maging sa maraming parte ng daigdig dahil sa pananalita ng wika at kultura ng mga grupong ito. Samantala, may isang pambansang lingua franca na Filipino na napagbuklod ang mga grupong ito upang makabuo ng isang pambansang karanasan at identidad. Mismong sa klasipikasyon ng karaniwang reyalidad ay magkakaugnay ang mga grupong etnolinggwistikong Pilipino ibig sabihin, sa daigdig ng mga konsepto at ideya, malalim ang pagkakaugnay ng mga Pilipino sa loob ng Kalinangang Bayan (Salazar 2004: 68). Konklusyon Matagal nang tapos ang usapin ng pagiging maka-Tagalog lamang ang Filipino. Matagal na ring tapos ang usapin na walang kakayahan ang wikang Filipino na kumatawan sa iba’t ibang karanasan, identidad at kakanyahan ng bawat etnolinggwistikong grupo sa Pilipinas. Sa paggiging multi-linggwal na bansa ng Pilipinas pinaghati-hati sa mga isla at tubig, ang mga katutubong wika sa Pilipinas ay mainam na hanguan ng inspirasyon at repleksyon ng kakayahan ng mga Filipinong manatiling nakatayo at matatag sa kabila ng hindi birong hamon ng kasaysayan. Kailangan ng Cebuano ang Tosino’t longganisa ng Kapampangan, kailangan ng Hiligaynon ang pagka-oragon ng Bicol sa pamamagitan ng sili at gata nito, kailangan ng Tagalog ang pakbet ng Ilokano sa loob man at sa labas ng bansa, sa kabila ng pagkakaroon ng iba’t ibang katutubong wika, may isang pambansang lingua franca na magtatagni at mag-uugnay ng magkakatulad na karanasan at identidad ang Wikang Filipino. Sanggunian: Bawler, Peter J. 2003. Evolution, The History of an Idea. Third edition. Penguin. London. Burke, Peter at Porter, Roy. 1987. The Social History of Language. Cambridge University Press. N.Y., USA. Gripaldo, Rolando. 2000. Filipino Philosohpy (Traditional Approach, Part 1, Section 1)De La Salle University Press. Maynila, Pilipinas. Hampden-Turner, Charles. 1981. Maps of the Mind (Charts and Concepts of the Mind and its Labyrinths). Collier Books, Mitchell Beazley Publishers, London, UK. Jospeh, John E. 2004. Language and Identity (National, Ethnic, Religious) Palgrave Mc Millan. N.Y., USA. Loring Brace,C.1995). 1995. The Stages of Human Evolution, Fifth Edition. Mc Millan. London, UK. Peregrino, Jovy M. Et al eds. 2002. Minanga: Mga Babasahin sa Varayti at Varyasyon ng Filipino. Sentro ng Wikang Filipino. Sistemang Unibersidad ng Pilipinas, Lunsod ng Quezon, Pilipinas. Pinker, Steven.1994. The Languge Instinct (How The Mind Creates Language)William Morow and Company. NY, USA. Pvek, Gary V. 1988. A Guide to the Mind. Educational Broadcasting Corporation, Praeger Publishers, NY, USA. Salazar, Zeus ed. 2004. Sikolohiyang Panlipunan-at-Kalinangan: Panimulang Pagbabalalangkas ng Isang Larangan. Palimbagan ng Lahi. Lunsod ng Quezon, Piliinas. Tarbuck, Lutgens. 2003. Earth Science, tenth edition. Mc Millan. London, UK. Research Papers on Sri AurobindoThe Fifth HorsemanMind TravelThe Relationship Between Delinquency and Drug UseThe Hockey GameInfluences of Socio-Economic Status of Married MalesAnalysis Of A Cosmetics AdvertisementResearch Process Part OneThree Concepts of PsychodynamicMarketing of Lifeboy Soap A Unilever ProductThe Spring and Autumn

Monday, March 2, 2020

Margaret Fuller, Writer, Editor, and Early Feminist

Margaret Fuller, Writer, Editor, and Early Feminist The American author, editor, and reformer Margaret Fuller holds a uniquely important place in 19th century history. Often remembered as a colleague and confidante of Ralph Waldo Emerson and others of the New England Transcendentalist movement, Fuller was also a feminist at a time when the role of women in society was severely limited. Fuller published several books, edited a magazine, and was a correspondent for the New York Tribune before dying tragically at the age of 40. Early Life of Margaret Fuller Margaret Fuller was born in Cambridgeport, Massachusetts, on May 23, 1810. Her full name was Sarah Margaret Fuller, but in her professional life she dropped her first name. Fuller’s father, a lawyer who eventually served in Congress, educated young Margaret, following a classical curriculum. At that time, such an education was generally only received by boys. As an adult, Margaret Fuller worked as a teacher, and felt the need to give public lectures. As there were local laws against women giving public addresses, she billed her lectures as â€Å"Conversations,† and in 1839, at the age of 29, began offering them at a bookshop in Boston. Margaret Fuller and the Transcendentalists Fuller became friendly with Ralph Waldo Emerson, the leading advocate of transcendentalism, and moved to Concord, Massachusetts and lived with Emerson and his family. While in Concord, Fuller also became friendly with Henry David Thoreau and Nathaniel Hawthorne. Scholars have noted that both Emerson and Hawthorne, though married men, had unrequited affections for Fuller, who was often described as being both brilliant and beautiful. For two years in the early 1840s Fuller was the editor of The Dial, the magazine of the transcendentalists. It was in the pages of The Dial that she published one of her significant early feminist works, â€Å"The Great Lawsuit: Man vs. Men, Woman vs. Women.† The title was a reference to individuals and society-imposed gender roles. She would later rework the essay and expand it into a book, Woman in the Nineteenth Century. Margaret Fuller and the New York Tribune In 1844 Fuller caught the attention of Horace Greeley, the editor of the New York Tribune, whose wife had attended some of Fuller’s â€Å"Conversations† in Boston years earlier. Greeley, impressed with Fuller’s writing talent and personality, offered her a job as a book reviewer and correspondent for his newspaper. Fuller was at first skeptical, as she held a low opinion of daily  journalism. But Greeley convinced her that he wanted his newspaper to be a mix of news for the common people as well as an outlet for intellectual writing. Fuller took the job in New York City, and lived with Greeley’s family in Manhattan. She worked for the Tribune from 1844 to 1846, often writing about reformist ideas such as improving conditions in prisons. In 1846 she was invited to join some friends on an extended trip to Europe. Fuller Reports from Europe She left New York, promising Greeley dispatches from London and elsewhere. While in Britain she conducted interviews with notable figures, including the writer Thomas Carlyle. In early 1847 Fuller and her friends traveled to Italy, and she settled in Rome. Ralph Waldo Emerson traveled to Britain in 1847, and sent a message to Fuller, asking her to return to America and live with him (and presumably his family) again at Concord. Fuller, enjoying the freedom she had found in Europe, declined the invitation. In the spring of 1847 Fuller had met a younger man, a 26-year-old Italian nobleman, the Marchese Giovanni Ossoli. They fell in love and Fuller became pregnant with their child. While still mailing dispatches off to Horace Greeley at the New York Tribune, she moved to the Italian countryside and delivered a baby boy in September 1848. Throughout 1848, Italy was in the throes of revolution, and Fuller’s news dispatches described the upheaval. She took pride in the fact that the revolutionaries in Italy drew inspiration from the American Revolution and what they regarded as the democratic ideals of the United States. Margaret Fullers Ill-Fated Return to America In 1849 the rebellion was suppressed, and Fuller, Ossoli, and their son left Rome for Florence. Fuller and Ossoli married and decided to relocate to the United States. In the late spring of 1850 the Ossoli family, not having the money to travel on a newer steamship, booked passage on a sailing ship bound for New York City. The ship, which was carrying a very heavy cargo of Italian marble in its hold, had hard luck from the outset of the voyage. The ships captain became ill, apparently with smallpox, died, and was buried at sea. The first mate took command of the ship, The Elizabeth, in mid-Atlantic, and managed to reach the east coast of America. However, the acting captain became disoriented in a heavy storm, and the ship ran aground on a sandbar off Long Island in the early morning hours of July 19, 1850. With its hold full of marble, the ship couldnt be freed. Though grounded within sight of the shoreline, enormous waves prevented those on board from reaching safety. Margaret Fuller’s baby son was given to a crew member, who tied him to his chest and tried to swim to shore. Both of them drowned. Fuller and her husband also drowned when the ship was eventually swamped by waves. Hearing the news in Concord, Ralph Waldo Emerson was devastated. He dispatched Henry David Thoreau to the shipwreck site on Long Island in hopes of retrieving Margaret Fuller’s body. Thoreau was deeply shaken by what he witnessed. Wreckage and bodies kept washing ashore, but the bodies of Fuller and her husband were never located. Legacy of Margaret Fuller In the years after her death, Greeley, Emerson, and others edited collections of Fullers writings. Literary scholars contend that Nathanial Hawthorne used her as a model for strong women in his writings. Had Fuller lived past the age of 40, there’s no telling what role she might have played during the critical decade of the 1850s. As it is, her writings and the conduct of her life served as an inspiration to later advocates for women’s rights.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Diamond Age analysis Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Diamond Age analysis - Essay Example iction texts, technology takes a central part, and the conflicts arising from how humankind use technology and the consequences, as well as creation of futuristic technology, is common. The observation that science fiction has two dimensions in its nature will form the basis of the analysis of the text The Diamond Age, from this point of view. These two dimensions are usually the world of fantasy and the world of reality. Neal Stephenson, the author of this text, achieves the capturing of these two dimensions. The first dimension that concerns the world of fantasy focuses on the learning of essential concepts valuable for the survival of individuals in the Victorian society. A young girl of a lower tribe class learns with the Young Lady’s Primer with the objective of surviving in this society. The Young Lady’s Primer, however, was not initially designed for the use by the people it is being used by but had rather been designed for Finkle-McGraw’s granddaughter, Elizabeth. Its use by other people resulted from the Engineer’s fault. Hackworth, the engineer of the Young Lady’s Primer, decides to have a copy for his daughter named Fiona, which is not as agreed between him and the ‘Equity Lord’. There are several copies of it further after it is stolen ending up in with Nell which forces Hackworth to make a third copy after losing the other one. This explains how Nell gets the Young Lady’s Primer, which essentially the beginning of the unf olding of major events in the text. The text The Diamond Age presents a conflict in which Hackworth is caught up in a dilemma. This is when he opposes the employment of the Seed. He has fears the consequences which would occur because of its wrong usage if its use is allowed to the general population. Typically this conflict exists concerning the employment of the some of the technology that exists in the contemporary world. There could be great dangers associated with the use of certain technologies which means